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Climats : la conférence d’Achgabat adopte une résolution sur le transport durable

Soumis par Yda Alexis NAGALO le dim, 12/18/2016 - 08:16

Accord de Paris – Emission des GES – Pays en développement et vulnérable – Transport Global (maritime, aérien, ferroviaire, terrestre, etc.) – Investissement sur le transport durable – Harmonisation des politiques de transport – synergie multi acteurs – Système d’information et suivi du transport durable.  

Les 26 et 27 novembre 2016 s’est tenu à Achgabat, capitale du Turkménistan, la 1ère conférence globale sur le transport durable. Cette rencontre de haut niveau, sous l’égide des Nations Unies[1], a adopté une résolution fixant les engagements des Etats et du secteur privé pour assurer une transition[2] vers le transport durable.

Ashgabat Statement on Commitments and Policy Recommendations  of the Global Sustainable Transport Conference

Cette conférence s’inscrit dans l’esprit de l’Accord de Paris[3] en mettant l’accent sur les actions pour la réduction des émissions de GES. Les secteurs du transport, particulièrement celui des transports aérien, maritime et terrestre, constitue l’une des principales sources de pollution dans le monde. Le transport basé sur les énergies fossiles grève considérablement la qualité du climat mondial et la seule option viable est d’orienter le secteur du transport vers des sources d’énergie renouvelable et durable[4]. Dans ce sens, cette conférence soutient[5] les actions déjà entreprises au sein de l’Organisation Maritime Internationale (OMI), par la fixation d’un nouveau plafond de la teneur en soufre dans les navires à compter de 2020, et de l’Organisation de l’Aviation civile internationale (OACI), par l’adoption d’une politique d’atténuation des émissions de GES et un mécanisme de marché à titre transitoire.

     OMI, nouveau plafond de la teneur en soufre dans les navires à compter de 2020Sentinelle, Yda Alexis NAGALO, l’Organisation de l’Aviation Civile Internationale (OACI) concrétise ses engagements pour la réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES).

Concrètement, la résolution d’Achgabat met la priorité de l’action sur la transformation du transport global vers les pays se trouvant dans une situation particulière (Least developed Countries - LDCs, landlocked developing countries-LLDCs, and small island developing states - SIDE)[6]. Ce choix est notamment justifié par la multiplication des contraintes (la transition énergétique inadéquate, les infrastructures inadaptées, le financement inexistant, faiblesse des capacités) et par la grande opportunité que représente la situation de ces Etats pour le développement durable, notamment en assurant les investissements adéquats, la coopération régionale et le développement d’économie sous régionale ou locale[7].  

Pour ce faire, les participants décident d’associer le secteur privé à la concrétisation de la transformation de la situation des transports dans ces pays[8]. Ces Etats devront promouvoir un modèle de durabilité du transport sous toutes ses formes[9] ; il leur faut aussi veiller à l’intégration de chaque sous-secteur des transports en vue de rendre possible les objectifs de réduction des émissions de GES. A ce titre, la durabilité des transports doit intégrer une logique de rentabilité économique[10], d’harmonisation, de simplification et de standardisation[11].

Cette démarche doit garantir une meilleure attractivité du secteur privé et la mobilisation du financement[12] pour l’investissement dans les infrastructures durables. Les pays du Nord doivent apporter un soutien adéquat dans le transfert de technologies en vue de pérenniser cette transformation des transports par la science, la technique et l’innovation[13]. Enfin, il appartient aux pays ciblés par la résolution de veiller à une mise en place d’un système de collecte de données susceptible de faciliter le suivi des engagements pour la durabilité des transports[14].  

 

[1]The Conference - an initiative welcomed by the UN General Assembly in its resolution 70/197, which was initiated by Turkmenistan and adopted unanimously by the Member States - builds on the outcomes of earlier intergovernmental deliberations, including the Future We Want, the Istanbul Programme of Action for the LDCs, the Vienna Programme of Action for the LLDCs, the SAMOA Pathway for SIDS, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Paris Agreement, and the New Urban Agenda” Ashgabat Statement, § 2.

[2] « Given the potential for climate-related damage, disruption and delay across closely interconnected global supply chains, participants resolved to take multi-pronged strategies to accelerate transition to low-carbon energy sources and technologies, increase investments in climate-resilient transport infrastructure, and encourage uptake of new and innovative technologies, including ICT-based solutions, in support of intelligent multimodal transport systems”, Ibid., § 20.

[3] « Bearing in mind that close to a quarter of energy-related GHG emissions come from transport and that these emissions are projected to grow substantially in the years to come, participants reaffirmed commitments to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector and to accelerating progress in the implementation of the Paris Agreement” Ibid, § 19.

[4]There is a consensus emerging from the discussion. Simply put, without sustainable transport, there will be no lasting progress on climate action; without sustainable transport, there will be no lasting progress on the Sustainable Development Goals” – Wu Hongbo, The United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA), Press release.

[5]Participants acknowledged the decision of the 39th session of the International Civil Aviation Organization's Assembly to implement a global market-based measure to address the increase in total CO2 emissions from international civil aviation above 2020 levels, taking into account special circumstances and respective capabilities of States. Participants noted that international maritime transport plays an essential role in facilitation of world trade; and that the International Maritime Organization, following the adoption of mandatory energy efficiency measures for ships in July 2011, which entered into force on 1 January 2013, is also developing a strategy to consider further measures to reduce GHG emissions from ships, including implementation schedule” Ashgabat Statement, § 21-22.

 

[6]The Conference addressed all modes of transport—road, rail, aviation, ferry and maritime, including both passengers and freight, and accorded priority attention to the concerns of developing countries, particularly those of Africa, LDCs, LLDCs and SIDS”, Ibidem, § 4.

[7] « While there are various transport challenges facing the world today, including safety and security challenges, there are also tremendous opportunities to re-think the current, largely unsustainable, transport policies, and to fast-track best practices to a new paradigm of sustainable transport in particular in developing countries”, Ibidem, § 8.

[8] “The Conference brought together important stakeholders from Governments, UN system, Multilateral Development Banks, the business sector, and civil society in a series of forward-looking and action–oriented dialogues that emphasized the enabling power of sustainable transport and its multiple roles in supporting the achievement of the SDGs. Governments, local authorities, business and civil society must work together to launch public-private partnerships to develop innovative, smart, forward-looking and people-centred sustainable transport systems. In this regard, a representative of the Global Partnership for Sustainable Transport presented a summary of the discussion at the Ashgabat Transport Business Forum and its outcome document”, Ibidem, § 5, 26.

[9] « Participants further reaffirmed commitment to support efforts to provide communities in rural areas in developing countries with access to major roads, rail lines, and public transport options that enable access to economic and social activities and opportunities in cities and towns and that unleash productivity and competitiveness of rural entrepreneurs and smallholder farmers. Addressing these circumstances will be among the essential steps needed to fulfil the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its promise to ―leave no one behind.  Participants also underlined the commitment to expand the public transport sector, which requires a shift that takes into account multi-modal transport systems, cooperation among stakeholders and transport authorities, policy integration, digital mobility, capacity building and a redirection of finance

It was also highlighted that air pollution caused by transportation is a growing public health risk, contributing to several millions of premature deaths, predominantly in developing countries. There is a need to improve vehicle and propulsion technology, encourage electric mobility, enhance end-use fuel efficiency in transport, improve and upgrade public transportation, reduce road congestion, encourage vehicle sharing and integrated charging system, and shirt to more compact city planning. In addition, it was emphasized that renewed efforts should be made to support industries in energy-efficient and low-emissions vehicle manufacturing”, Ibidem, § 12, 13, 23.

[10] « All stakeholders need to work together to put in place integrated multi-modal transport and transit systems and corridors that optimize the comparative advantages of each mode of transport to achieve sustainable transport of passengers and freight within and between countries, including through regional and sub-regional connectivity, integration, and harmonization of transport systems and frameworks. In this regard, there was recognition of the need to revive the ancient Silk Road with modern technology and advanced management of transit corridors. The ―One Belt One Road‖ initiative was welcomed. Participants reaffirmed commitment to enhancing inter-island connectivity and linking the economies of SIDS to regional markets and global supply chains, including by integrating them into existing and emerging maritime and multimodal transport and economic corridors, and to encouraging sustainable transport initiatives in the context of the SIDS Partnership Framework. The importance of effective climate change adaptation and DRR for critical coastal transport infrastructure in SIDS was highlighted, as was the related urgent need for capacity-building and financing » Ibidem, § 9, 16.

[11] « Participants re-emphasized the need to promote harmonization, simplification and standardization of rules and documentation, including the full and effective implementation of international conventions on transport and transit as well as bilateral, sub-regional and regional agreements. The benefits of harmonized international regulatory frameworks for transit cooperation include, amongst others, more efficient and effective border and customs controls, simplified and standardized procedures and enhanced cooperation, which will lead to faster, cheaper and more reliable cross-border trade and transport, especially for LLDCs. Participants further resolved to renew efforts to reshape transport networks and planning by optimizing operations through smart hubs, organizing routes and schedules to reduce empty mileage, improving land use planning, and harmonizing regulatory frameworks across the transport sector” Ibidem, § 17, 18.

[12] « Mobilizing finance for sustainable transport will be an enormous challenge, especially given the strain on public finances that exists in many countries. In this context, participants reaffirmed the Addis Ababa Action Agenda on Financing for Development, and underscored the vital role of public finance, both domestic and international, in meeting sustainable transport needs and in catalysing all sources of finance, including traditional official development assistance, domestic resource mobilization, direct private investment and a wide array of partnership models, including Public-Private partnerships (PPPs)”, Ibidem, § 27.

[13]« Participants further stressed the need to promote the integration of science, technology and innovation into sustainable transport systems by tapping into technological opportunities in the decades to come to bring about fundamental, transformative changes to transport systems, including energy efficiency technologies as well as the information and communication technologies and called for strengthening capacity building support to developing countries” Ibidem, § 28.  

[14] « Participants emphasized the need for improved reporting and data collection systems to ensure effective implementation of low-carbon, sustainable and resilient transport systems. Adequate and quality data is key for setting baselines and benchmarks as well as for measuring performance and tracking and monitoring progress”, Ibidem, § 30.

 

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